AANS 2016 Annual Scientific Meeting
Design and development of a novel, fast, extensive intraoperative registration technique of optical machine vision to pre-operative imaging for cranial and spinal neurosurgical procedures: clinical feasibility and comparison with existing neuronavigation
Clinical study of 118 patients undergoing a craniotomy or spinal procedure using navigation. The 7D System provided automatic registration in <3 seconds, with average time from optical imaging to navigation being 46 seconds.
Journal of Biomedical Optics
Perspective review on applications of optics in spinal surgery
Optical technology can be used for intraoperative image guidance and instrument tracking in spine surgery. The 7D System is the first navigation system to use structured light for patient-to-image registration, which is significantly faster than other techniques and has equivalent accuracy.
Handbook of Robotic and Image-Guided Surgery. 1st edition
Machine-Vision Image-Guided Techniques for Spinal and Cranial Procedures
The 7D System uses an all-optical nonionizing structured light and advanced machine vision algorithms to quickly achieve image registration, reducing the steps required to set up and operate an image guided surgery system, leading to a fast workflow with a short learning curve
Quantification of computational geometric congruence in surface-based registration for spinal intra-operative three-dimensional navigation
Cadaveric and clinical study quantifying geometric symmetry in posterior spine exposures and identifying potential predictors of navigation error. Geometric congruence is greatest at C1 and subaxial cervical spine. Including the base of the spinous process in registration improves accuracy.
Congress of Neurological Surgeons 2016 Annual Meeting
Accuracy validation in the cervical spine of a Novel, Rapid, Optical Intraoperative Spinal Navigation System: Initial Clinical Feasibility
Retrospective review of 6 patients with posterior cervical instrumentation using the 7D System. Accuracy of the system shows it is comparable to other navigation systems, but with a more efficient registration process that doesn't interrupt surgeon workflow.
Congress of Neurological Surgeons 2018 Annual Meeting
Novel Extended Vertebral Registration for Wrong-level spinal surgery – A Virtual Trial With Data Multiplexing Using Patient Specific Anatomy and Machine Vision Image Guidance (NEVER Wrong)
Identified a technique to use the 7D System to reduce the incidence of wrong level spine surgery. 4 detectors were tested with 310 measurements from 46 cases; each detector determined if the level was correct with 94% accuracy.
Global Spine Journal
Intraoperative Error Propagation in 3-Dimensional Spinal Navigation From Nonsegmental Registration: A Prospective Cadaveric and Clinical Study
Prospective clinical and cadaveric study investigating accuracy of the 7D System when navigating distant to the spine reference frame and registered vertebral body. Results showed that navigating instruments within 2 levels of the reference frame minimizes risk of navigation error.
High Speed, High Density Intraoperative 3D Optical Surface Imaging with Efficient Registration to MRI and CT for Craniospinal Surgical Navigation
Prospective clinical study of 162 pedicle screws comparing 7D System to two legacy navigation systems indicates significant workflow improvement with a decrease of registration time and setup (41s vs. 258s vs. 794s respectively) without compromising accuracy (no difference in breach rate or error).
Clinical Spine Surgery
Optical Topographic Imaging for Spinal Intraoperative 3-Dimensional Navigation in the Cervical Spine: Initial Preclinical and Clinical Feasibility
Prospective clinical and cadaveric study testing the accuracy of the 7D System in the cervical spine with an open posterior approach showed comparable accuracy in the cervical spine as with open thoracolumbar procedures, and comparable accuracy to other spinal navigation systems.
Optical Topographic Imaging for Spinal Intraoperative Three-Dimensional Navigation in Mini-Open Approaches: A Prospective Cohort Study of Initial Preclinical and Clinical Feasibility
Prospective clinical and cadaveric study investigating the accuracy of the 7D System with mini-open exposures of 25-40mm showed comparable accuracy of mini open to open exposures, and demonstrated successful registration is dependent on number of surface point registrations and not exposure size.
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