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the science

Research Studies

7D Surgical is committed to the development of evidence supporting improvements to scientific advancements and clinical knowledge in patient outcomes around the world.
International Journal of Spine Surgery, August 2022
Geoffrey Stewart

Visible Light Navigation in Spine Surgery: My Experience With My First 150 Cases

This study is a retrospective cohort investigation of 150 consecutive patients who underwent spinal instrumentation placement utilizing visible light navigation. The objective was to determine the utility of the navigation system and its strengths and weaknesses as well as to assess patient safety
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The Spine Journal, Oct 2021
Gregory M. Malham, BSc, MB, ChB, FRACS; Nigel R. Munday, MB, BS, MBA

Comparison of novel machine vision spinal image guidance system with existing 3D fluoroscopy-based navigation system: a randomized prospective study

Randomized study comparing 7D to 3D Nav. 7D & 3D Nav demonstrate high accuracy for screw placement. 7D showed significant reduction in intraop radiation time (94.3%) & dose (97.8%). 7D does not require 3D-fluoro or radiolucent operating tables; reduced registration time & equip may reduce costs.
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J Neurosurg Case Lessons JNSCL, 2021
Wadhwa H, Malacon K, Medress ZA, et al.

First reported use of real-time intraoperative computed tomography angiography image registration using the Machine-vision Image Guided Surgery system: illustrative case

CTA-guided navigation creates 3d reconstruction of cervical spine anatomy to assist surgeons. Machine-Vision system registers in seconds, minimizing operative time with no additional radiation exposure. Surgeons can better adjust for abnormal vertebral artery anatomy and increase procedure safety
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Frontiers in Surgery, 2021
Kalfas I. H.

Machine Vision Navigation in Spine Surgery

Image-guided navigation has become an accepted & proven technology for improving accuracy of spine fixation screws. Machine-Vision is the most recent iteration, providing same level of accuracy as other nav systems but with greater intraop workflow efficiency & without the need for intraop radiation
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AANS Annual Scientific Meeting, 2016
Jakubovic R, Guha D, Lu M, et al.

Design and development of a novel, fast, extensive intraoperative registration technique of optical machine vision to pre-operative imaging for cranial and spinal neurosurgical procedures: clinical feasibility and comparison with existing neuronavigation

Clinical study of 118 patients undergoing a craniotomy or spinal procedure using navigation. The 7D System provided automatic registration in <3 seconds, with average time from optical imaging to navigation being 46 seconds.
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Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2018
Guha D, Yang VXD.

Perspective review on applications of optics in spinal surgery

Optical technology can be used for intraoperative image guidance and instrument tracking in spine surgery. The 7D System is the first navigation system to use structured light for patient-to-image registration, which is significantly faster than other techniques and has equivalent accuracy.
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Handbook of Robotic and Image-Guided Surgery. 1st edition, 2020
Faraji-Dana Z, Mariampillai AL, Standish BA, Yang VX, Leung MK.

Machine-Vision Image-Guided Techniques for Spinal and Cranial Procedures

The 7D System uses an all-optical nonionizing structured light and advanced machine vision algorithms to quickly achieve image registration, reducing the steps required to set up and operate an image guided surgery system, leading to a fast workflow with a short learning curve
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PLoS One, 2019
Guha D, Jakubovic R, Leung MK, et al.

Quantification of computational geometric congruence in surface-based registration for spinal intra-operative three-dimensional navigation

Cadaveric and clinical study quantifying geometric symmetry in posterior spine exposures and identifying potential predictors of navigation error. Geometric congruence is greatest at C1 and subaxial cervical spine. Including the base of the spinous process in registration improves accuracy.
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Congress of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting, 2016
Guha D, Jakubovic R, Gupta S, Fehlings MG, Facs FC, Yee A.

Accuracy validation in the cervical spine of a Novel, Rapid, Optical Intraoperative Spinal Navigation System: Initial Clinical Feasibility

Retrospective review of 6 patients with posterior cervical instrumentation using the 7D System. Accuracy of the system shows it is comparable to other navigation systems, but with a more efficient registration process that doesn't interrupt surgeon workflow.
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Congress of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting, 2018
Zagzoog N, Guha D, Merali Z, Gupta S, Leung M, Yang VX.

Novel Extended Vertebral Registration for Wrong-level spinal surgery – A Virtual Trial With Data Multiplexing Using Patient Specific Anatomy and Machine Vision Image Guidance (NEVER Wrong)

Identified a technique to use the 7D System to reduce the incidence of wrong level spine surgery. 4 detectors were tested with 310 measurements from 46 cases; each detector determined if the level was correct with 94% accuracy.
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