Efficiency

1. Machine-Vision Image Guided Surgery (MvIGS): An intraoperative and radiation-free spine navigation system workflow analysis

Brecevich AT, Dowe C, Lebl DR, Sama AA, Abjornson C, Cammisa FP. Machine-vision image guided surgery (MvIGS): an intraoperative and radiation-free spine navigation system workflow analysis. Spine J. 2019;19(9):S59. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2019.05.135

  • Results from the first 26 patients enrolled in a single-centre, randomized prospective study of adults undergoing posterior spinal fusion using 2D fluoroscopy or 3D machine-vision image guide surgery (MvIGS) with the 7D Surgical System
  • Total radiation exposure time and radiation dose were reduced in the MvIGS group compared to 2D fluoroscopy group (27.4 vs 28.8 seconds and 14.3 vs 16.1 mGy, respectively)
  • Mean operative time with MvIGS and 2D fluoroscopy was 236 and 251 minutes respectively, indicating the 7D Surgical System did not disturb surgeon workflow

2. Machine vision augmented reality for pedicle screw insertion during spine surgery.

Nguyen NQ, Priola SM, Ramjist JM, et al. Machine vision augmented reality for pedicle screw insertion during spine surgery. J Clin Neurosci. 2020;72:350-356. doi:10.1016/j.jocn.2019.12.067

  • Phantom (n=1 phantom, 48 screws) and clinical study (n=5 patients, 24 screws) to develop an augmented reality (AR) feature for the 7D Surgical System to maintain the precision and accuracy of surgical navigation when tool tracking is unavailable
  • AR can improve surgical workflow by superimposing pedicle safe zones as see-through lines on live video feeds to assist with visualizing target trajectories relative to patient anatomy

3. What should my hospital buy next?—Guidelines for the acquisition and application of imaging, navigation, and robotics for spine surgery

Malham GM, Wells-Quinn T. What should my hospital buy next?—Guidelines for the acquisition and application of imaging, navigation, and robotics for spine surgery. J Spine Surg. 2019;5(1):155-165. doi:10.21037/jss.2019.02.04

  • Registration with the 7D Surgical System requires visualization of bone for structured light imaging, which captures >250,000 data points over a 40 cm × 30 cm area (4-6 points/mm2 resolution)
  • Rapid registration using machine vision allows segmental registration of each vertebrae and quick re-registration if the reference frame is displaced to maintain accuracy
  • 7D Surgical System is highly recommended for open posterior cervical fusions, open posterior thoracolumbar fusions, and complex deformity procedures

 

4. High Speed, High Density Intraoperative 3D Optical Surface Imaging with Efficient Registration to MRI and CT for Craniospinal Surgical Navigation 

Jakubovic R, Guha D, Gupta S, et al. High Speed, High Density Intraoperative 3D Optical Topographical Imaging with Efficient Registration to MRI and CT for Craniospinal Surgical Navigation. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):1-12. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-32424-z

  • Prospective clinical study of 171 craniospinal surgical procedures comparing the 7D Surgical System to two legacy navigation systems indicates significant workflow improvement without compromising accuracy
  • Analysis of 162 pedicle screws found no significant differences between systems in breach rates and error between navigation systems
  • Decreased registration and setup time with the 7D Surgical System compared to other navigation systems (41s vs 258s and 794s), indicating increased workflow efficiency

5. Machine-Vision Image-Guided Techniques for Spinal and Cranial Procedures

Faraji-Dana Z, Mariampillai AL, Standish BA, Yang VX, Leung MK. Chapter 32 – Machine-Vision Image-Guided Techniques for Spinal and Cranial Procedures. In: Abedin-Nasab M, ed. Handbook of Robotic and Image-Guided Surgery. 1st ed. Elsevier Inc.; 2020:551-574.

  • The 7D Surgical System uses an all-optical nonionizing structured light and advanced machine vision algorithms to quickly achieve image registration
  • The technology reduces the steps required to set up and operate an image guided surgery system, leading to a fast workflow with a short learning curve

6. Perspective review on applications of optics in spinal surgery

Guha D, Yang VXD. Perspective review on applications of optics in spinal surgery. J Biomed Opt. 2018;23(6):060601. doi:10.1117/1.jbo.23.6.060601

  • Optical technology can be used for intraoperative image guidance and instrument tracking in spine surgery
  • The 7D Surgical System is the first navigation system to use structured light for patient-to-image registration (optical topographic imaging), which is significantly faster than other techniques and has equivalent accuracy

7. Design and development of a novel, fast, extensive intraoperative registration technique of optical machine vision to pre-operative imaging for cranial and spinal neurosurgical procedures: clinical feasibility and comparison with existing neuronavigation

Jakubovic R, Guha D, Lu M, et al. Design and development of a novel, fast, extensive intraoperative registration technique of optical machine vision to pre-operative imaging for cranial and spinal neurosurgical procedures: clinical feasibility and comparison with existing neuronavigation. In: AANS Annual Scientific Meeting. Chicago, IL; 2016:AA-34531.

  • Clinical study of 118 patients undergoing a craniotomy or spinal procedure using navigation
  • 7D Surgical System provided automatic registration in < 3 seconds, with average time from optical imaging to navigation being 46 seconds